*Stefanie Tcharos ( is an Associate Professor of Musicology at University of California, Santa Barbara, whose research focuses on early modern musical drama, genre, and cultural history. She has published articles, reviews, and book chapters on seventeenth- and eighteenth-century opera and the serenata and is the author of Opera’s Orbit: Musical Drama and the Influence of Opera in Arcadian Rome (Cambridge, 2011). She has co-directed the Center for the Interdisciplinary Study of Music at UCSB, and is current co-editor of Cambridge Opera Journal.

[1] Dell’Antonio references the following scholarly studies that make explicit reference to Della Valle or Giustiniani’s essays: Robert Holzer, “‘Sono d’altro garbo…le canzonette che si cantono oggi’: Pietro della Valle on Music and Modernity in the Seventeenth Century,” Studi musicali 21, no. 2 (1992): 253–306; Tim Carter, “‘An Air New and Grateful to the Ear’: The Concept of ‘Aria’ in Late Renaissance and Early Baroque Italy,” Music Analysis 12, no. 2 (July 1993): 127–45; John Walter Hill, Roman Monody, Cantata, and Opera from the Circles around Cardinal Montalto, 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997); and Richard Wistreich, Warrior, Courtier, Singer: Giulio Cesare Brancaccio and the Performance of Identity in the Late Renaissance (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007).

[2] Marc Fumaroli, “Rome 1630: Entrée en scène du spectateur,” in Roma 1630: Il trionfo del pennello, ed. Olivier Bonfait (Milan: Electa, 1994), 53–82.

[3] Dell’Antonio carefully distinguishes how the process of consuming and collecting music was quite different in the early decades than in the later part of the seventeenth century. He cites Margaret Murata’s critical study of late Seicento cantata score collections as a point of contrast. See Margaret Murata, “Roman Cantata Scores as Traces of Musical Culture and Signs of Its Place in Society,” in Atti del XIV congresso della Società Internazionale di Musicologia, Bologna, 1987: Trasmissione e recezione della forme di cultura musicale, ed. Angelo Pompilio, Donatella Restani, Lorenzo Bianconi, and F. Alberto Gallo (Turin: EDT, 1990), 272–84.

[4] Christopher Small, Musicking: The Meaning of Performance and Listening (Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1998). Dell’Antonio adapts Small’s term to suggest that noble conversers co-opted music as if it were part of their own activity: “the conversation into which music is inserted continues to ‘behave’ as if the music were part of the activity of the noble conversers—discourse-about becomes a way of ‘musicking.'” (7). He later cites José Antonio Maravall, who uses other examples to explain how spectators themselves became participants in the work: see Culture of the Baroque: Analysis of a Historical Structure, trans. Terry Cochran (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1986), 74–75, 220.

[5] As a case in point, he draws on Stefano Lorenzetti’s Musica e identità nobiliare nell’Italia del Rinascimento (Florence: Olschki, 2003) for his important study of the new-style courtier who differed from his Castiglionian predecessors and faced a new need to be more specifically competent in discrete art forms. Dell’Antonio notes that Lorenzetti’s study does not include the important competency in spiritual knowledge, a critical aspect his own book seeks to rectify for the particular connoisseurship that thrived in post-Tridentine Rome.

[6] Dell’Antonio discusses Marino’s volume (with the singer Leonora Baroni as the ostensible subject of each poem), with reference to other key secondary literature, such as the models presented by Suzanne Cuzick in “A Soprano Subjectivity: Vocality, Power, and the Compositional Voice of Francesca Caccini,” in Crossing Boundaries: Attending to Early Modern Women, ed. Jane Donaworth and Adele Seeff (Newark, Del.: University of Delaware Press, 2000), 80–138. Through his study, Dell’Antonio demonstrates how the female singing voice was appropriated as a conduit to the transcendent, but only because Baroni’s voice could be translated through refined and controlled discourse (84–87).

[7] See “The Discourse on Language,” the classic text by Michel Foucault for his analysis of the “social appropriation of discourses” as the primary means for gaining control of meaning and placing it out of reach of those with a difference of competence or social position who otherwise are denied access to it. Michel Foucault, The Archaeology of Knowledge (New York: Pantheon, 1972), 215–37.

[8] See Roger Chartier’s theoretical grounding of the social concept of representation and its centrality to cultural history in his “Introduction,” and “The Power and Limits of Representation” from Cultural History: Between Practices and Representations, trans. Lydia G. Cochrane (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1988), 1–17, 90–103 respectively; for adopting this notion of “gap” see Chartier’s discussion of Louis Marin’s Sublime Poussin (1995), 90–91.

[9] Guidiccioni’s essay on music appears to be in the author’s own hand, and it is dated October 15, 1632, though it is unclear if this is the original date of the “clean copy” or refers to the later revisions and annotations made. According to his examination of the source, Dell’Antonio speculates the essay might have been among a group of manuscripts Guidiccioni recommended in his will to correct, revise, and prepare for publication. It is unclear from the historical record whether these manuscripts ever did get circulated in final published form. See Listening as Spiritual Practice, 108–9.

[10] A case in point is Dell’Antonio’s discussion of Guidiccioni’s writings that broaden out the practice of listening to sound beyond music, as with the writer’s 1633 Ars maxima Vaticana, a poetic tribute to Gian Lorenzo Bernini’s baldacchino designed for the high altar of St. Peter’s Cathedral. Guidiccioni praises the sonic potential of the structure using metaphors that are overwhelmingly musical and thereby positing “a sort of protoaesthetic spiritual synesthesia” to describe those experiencing the baldacchino’s powerful effects as a mixed medium for divine transcendence. See Listening and Spiritual Practice, 108.

[11] Dell’Antonio includes a transcription and translation of Lelio Guidiccioni’s “Della musica,” as the monograph’s appendix(135–55).

[12] Consider, for example, Arnaldo Morelli’s article on musical patronage in the Roman oratory, where he charts how the Congregation of the Oratory likewise supported activities (in particular, the use of images and music) to inflame emotions and speak to the heart. However, regarding music, the original Fathers favored more basic genres (simple three-part laudi), but these choices were replaced when more socially powerful cardinals and princes brought in their own musicians, who wrote in newer and more sophisticated genres. Some felt this incited a new “vanity of the music” (28), thereby revealing a sense of controversy over potential worldliness that might pervade devotional activity. See “‘Il muovere e non il far maraviglie.’ Relationships between Artistic and Musical Patronage in the Roman Oratory,” Italian History & Culture 5 (1999): 13–28.

[13] See the outlines for his argument in Listening as Spiritual Practice, 7–8, 13.

[14] See Chapter 3 (75–76) for Dell’Antonio’s application of Ago’s concepts, and his Introduction (11–14) and Envoy (132–33) for his references to Abbate, Smith, Feld, and Szendy.