References

* Janet K. Page (jpage2@memphis.edu ) is Professor of musicology at the University of Memphis. Her research focuses on women and music in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Vienna.

[1] Ellen Rosand, Opera in Seventeenth-Century Venice: The Creation of a Genre (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991), 239.

[2] Francesco Maria Massi, writing in 1673. See Beth L. Glixon, “Giulia Masotti, Venice, and the Rise of the Prima Donna,” pars. 7.2, 7.3, this volume, for this and other admiring comments on Giulia’s singing.

[3] Glixon, “Giulia Masotti.” On Giulia’s Italian career, see also Rosand, Opera in Seventeenth-Century Venice, 224–40, and Beth L. Glixon and Jonathan E. Glixon, Inventing the Business of Opera: The Impresario and His World in Seventeenth-Century Venice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 209–14.

[4] Rosand, Opera in Seventeenth-Century Venice, 226–43; Valeria De Lucca, “The Power of the Prima Donna: Giulia Masotti’s Repertory of Choice,” this volume; and Glixon, “Giulia Masotti.”

[5] Paul Nettl provided a brief overview of what was then known of Giulia’s Viennese career in a footnote in “Die Wiener Tanzkomposition in der zweiten Hälfte des siebzehnten Jahrhunderts,” Studien zur Musikwissenschaft 8 (1921): 172. Sergio Monaldini, writing in the Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, s.v. “Masotti, Vincenza Giulia” (accessed October 23, 2009), http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/vincenza-giulia-masotti_(Dizionario-Biografico)/, includes more recently uncovered information. On Giulia’s visit to Rome in 1696, see this article, par. 5.5 and Colleen Reardon, “Letters from the Road: Giulia Masotti and Cardinal Sigismondo Chigi,” this volume, par. 4.3.

[7] A study focused on the Habsburgs as musicians is Elisabeth Hilscher, Mit Leier und Schwert: Die Habsburger und die Musik (Graz: Verlag Styria, 2000).

[8] Another possibility is that the empress referred to was Dowager Empress Eleonora Gonzaga-Nevers (widow of Ferdinand III), a great supporter of Italian music. Given the timing, the household of Margarita Teresa seems most likely, but on Eleonora and female singers, and on Giulia’s relationship with the dowager empress, see this article, paragraphs 3.6 and 5.4.

[9] Remo Giazotto, “Nel CCC anno della morte di Antonio Cesti: Ventidue lettere ritrovate nell’Archivio di Stato di Venezia,” Nuova rivista musicale italiana 3, no. 1 (May/June 1969): 510: “Quanto alla Signora Giulia non vi facci gran Capitale, perché per dirla in somma confidenza a V.S. non è molto lontana di poter venire qui in servitio della Maestà dell’Imperatrice, si serva dell’avviso e taccia” (Vienna, June 27, 1666). This is apparently the letter to which Hermann Kretzschmar refers in “Beiträge zur Geschichte der venetianischen Oper,” Jahrbuch der Musikbibliothek Peters 14 (1907): 81.

[10] “Weilen mein Gemahl allwail verlangte, spanische Music zu hören”: letter from Emperor Leopold to the Habsburg ambassador to Spain, Franz Eusebius, Graf Pötting, January 6, 1667; Privatbriefe Kaiser Leopold I. an den Grafen F. E. Pötting, 1662–1673, ed. Alfred Francis Pribram and Moriz Landwehr von Pragenau, vol. 1 (Vienna: Carl Gerold’s Sohn, 1903), 276.

[11] A-Wös Finanz- und Hofkammerarchiv, Sonderstände, Sammlungen und Selekte, Hofzahlamtsbücher [hereafter Hofzahlamtsbücher], 1669 (112), fol. 181r. Richas returned to Spain after the empress’s death. The composer Maria Anna von Raschenau served the imperial couple as a musician, but she did not hold an official position at the empress’s court; see Janet K. Page, “‘A Lovely and Perfect Music’: Maria Anna von Raschenau and Music at the Viennese Convent of St. Jakob auf der Hülben,” Early Music 38, no. 3 (August 2010): 403–21.

[12] Glixon and Glixon, Inventing the Business of Opera, 180.

[13] Ave Claudia Imperatrix: Die Hochzeit Kaiser Leopolds I. mit Erzherzogin Claudia Felicitas von Tirol in Graz 1673; Schloss Eggenberg als Residenz der kaiserlichen Braut: Schloss Eggenberg, 19. Oktober–30. November 1983 [Exhibition catalog] (Graz: Landesmuseum Joanneum Graz, 1983), 30.

[14] “Chiuse così lieto giorno la dolce melodia d’una serenata d’Instrumenti, e voci esquisite, resa singolare dal canto della famosa Sra Giulia Romana, che havendo accoppiato il suo gran talento naturale, con uno studio infaticabile, hà accreditata su le rive del Tebro la favolosa memoria delle antiche Sirene, delle quali si narra, che con dolcezza del canto vi facessero in quei tempi più preda, che non saprebbero rapir hoggi tutti i Pirati del’Affrica.” Breve descrizzione del viaggio, et arrivo in Gratz della Maestà dell’Imperatrice Claudia Felice nata Arciduchessa d’Austria &c. e Delle Augustissime Nozze celebrate con la medesima dalla Maestà Cesarea dell’Imperator Leopoldo (Graz: gl’Heredi Widmansterter, [1673]), [9] (copy in A-Imf FB 15594).

[15] De Lucca, “The Power of the Prima Donna,” paragraphs 2.1–2.21.

[16] Walter Senn, Musik und Theater am Hof zu Innsbruck (Innsbruck: Österreichische Verlagsanstalt, 1954), 255–69, 287–93; Theophil Antonicek, “Die höfische Musik von Maximilian III. bis zur Auflösung der Hofmusikkapelle,” in Musikgeschichte Tirols, vol. 2, Von der Frühen Neuzeit bis zum Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts, ed. Kurt Drexel and Monika Fink (Innsbruck: Universitätsverlag Wagner, 2004), 57–68; Herbert Seifert, “Cesti and His Opera Troupe in Innsbruck and Vienna,” in La figura e l’opera di Antonio Cesti nel Seicento europeo: Convegno internazionale di studio Arezzo, 26–27 aprile 2002, ed. Mariateresa Dellaborra (Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 2003), 15–61.

[17] Herwig Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes (1637–1705), 3 vols. (Vienna: Hermann Böhlaus Nachf., 1967–9), 2:9: “Item eine Musicantin Julia in der Senfften und noch Darzue Vor ihre bediente und Notturfften 1 Calleß: 4 Pferd.”

[18] Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 2:10.

[19] Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes 2:23.

[20] A-Wös Hofzahlamtsbücher 118 (1674), fol. 212v: [Außgaben auf Ihro May. Der Regierenden Röm. Kayserin Claudia Felicita Camer Deputat und Hoffstatts Besoldungen.] “Musicantin Vincenza Giulia Masottin. Vermüg ordinanz und qtung vor ain Jahr, die gebierend Ain tausent fünff hundert guld[en]. Idest 1500 — — ” (The female musician Vincenza Giulia Masotti: Correctly paid, for one year, the earned one thousand, five hundred gulden). This sum is also mentioned in the Obersthofmeisteramtesakten: see Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 2:23. The highest pay level for a performing musician at this time was 1,080 fl. (florins: the term is interchangeable with gulden) received by the Konzertmeister Burckhardt Kugler (Hofzahlamtsbücher 118, fol. 167r) and the tenor Antonio Masucci (Hofzahlamtsbücher 118, fol. 165r); Kugler received additional payment for his students.

[21] Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 2:9, 10, 27, 42.

[22] Glixon and Glixon, Inventing the Business of Opera, 331–37.

[23] Seifert, Die Oper am Wiener Kaiserhof im 17. Jahrhundert (Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1985), 75: the Florentine representative to the imperial court, Giovanni Chiaromanni, reported that Claudia Felicitas sang and accompanied herself on the harpsichord, fascinating the emperor with her angelic appearance. A report of visitors from the Mantuan court describes the fifteen-year-old princess as singing to the lute (Senn, Musik und Theater, 294).

[24] Letter from Leopold to Count Ferdinand Bonaventura Harrach, October 26, 1665, A-Wös Familienarchiv Harrach, Karton 206, Mappe “Leopold I. 1665–1673,” cited in Seifert, “Cesti and His Opera Troupe in Innsbruck and Vienna,” 32: “daß Sie Recht wol Singt. Die manir Ist perfect. Kann Nitt anderst Sein Ist Von Cesti herkomben.”

[25] According to a letter from Schmelzer to Prince-Bishop Karl von Liechtenstein-Kastelkorn (February 20, 1676), in which he lists the cast of an entertainment in which his daughter had taken part: “meine Tochter, die als eine Camerdienerin bey ihro Mt. dient, weil sie etwas geigen kan….” (my daughter, who serves as a woman of the chamber to her Majesty, because she can play the violin a little), cited in Nettl, “Die Wiener Tanzkomposition,” 172. See also Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 2:9.

[26] Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 2:172–3. After the empress’s death, Anna Maria del Riccio received board and a stipend to perfect her musical skills, with the understanding that she would make herself useful in court music, as necessary. She was named in A-Wös Hofzahlamtsbücher among the Frauen in vols. 122 (1678), fol. 140r; 123 (1679), fol. 129v; and 124 (1680), fol. 126v.

[27] Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 2:9.

[28] The emperor reported having a “Hausmusik” at the time of her arrival. A-Wös Familienarchiv Harrach, Karton 207, Ferdinand Bonaventura I. Korrespondenz, Kaiserlicher Hof, Leopold I. (1674–1675 Juni), letter of May 17, 1674.

[29] A “treffliche Sänger- und Lautenschlägerin aus dem Kaiserl. Frawenzimmer,” cited in Herbert Seifert, “1619–1705: ‘Die kaiserlichen Hofkapellen’: Italienisches Barock in Wien,” in Musica imperialis: 500 Jahre Hofmusikkapelle in Wien, 1498–1998, Ausstellung der Musiksammlung der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek … 11. Mai bis 10. November 1998 (Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1998), 46–47.

[30] Otto G. Schindler, “Viaggi teatrali tra l’inquisitione e il sacco comici dell’arte di Mantova alle corti degli Asburgo d’Austria,” in I Gonzaga e l’Impero: Itinerari dello spettacolo, ed. Umberto Artioli and Cristina Grazioli, 107–60, esp. 130–41 (Florence: Casa Editrice Le Lettere, 2005). With thanks to the anonymous reviewer for this reference.

[31] A-Whh Obersthofmeisteramt, Sonderreihe, Bd. 186, “Hoffstatts Buech Ferdinand III,” 118r–v: Mußicallische Weibs-Perszohnen

Margaritha Catani, hate vom 2 April 637: an: Jährlichen 2000
Lucia Rubina, hate vom 2 Aprilis 637: an: Jährlichen  600
Maria Bertalin, hate vom 2 Aprilis 637: an: Jährlichen 360
Francesca Rossin, hate vom 2 Aprilis 637: an: Jährlichen 360
Catharina Strasoldin, hate vom 2 April 637:  an: Jährlichen 360
Bartholomea Pagiola, hate vom 2 April 637: an: Jährlichen 360
Maria Jordanin, hate vom 2 April 637: zuebendten Ludovicy Bartholaia, ders in der Musicalischen Khunst instruiren solte, Jährl 210
Barbara Degliati, hate von dem 2 April 637: an: Jährlichen 200
Lucia Gentilin, hate auch vom 2 April 637: an: Jährlichen 150

[32] Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 2:43.

[33] A-WösThe Frauen are listed regularly in the Hofzahlamtsbücher from vol. 84 (1637–9). They were overlooked by Köchel and other historians of the Hofkapelle, perhaps because they were grouped after the lists of poets and dancers and because the women are not specifically identified as musicians—indeed, many of them apparently were not. They included widows and other relatives of court musicians receiving pensions (sometimes even male relatives of female musicians) and widows of other court employees receiving stipends for the musical education of their sons.

[34] Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 1:142, 150. She died on July 1, 1666, aged forty-nine (A-Wsa Totenbeschauprotokoll).

[35] Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 2:7.

[36] Possibly the mysterious “Bornasin” or Maria Masucci; see Table 1, ref. n.

[37] Christophoro Rossi was employed from 1637 until his death in 1665: Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 1:73. See also Ludwig Ritter von Köchel, Die Kaiserliche Hof-Musikkapelle in Wien von 1543 bis 1867 (Vienna: Beck’sche Universitäts-Buchhandlung, 1869), 59.

[38] After her husband’s death, Francesca Rossi petitioned for continuation of his stipend to add to her own monthly 30 fl.: Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes 1:53, 73.

[39] Francesca Rossi is last recorded in the Hofzahlamtsbücher as receiving a stipend in vol. 110 (1665–66). She died on November 22, 1666 (A-Wsa Totenbeschauprotokoll).

[40] A-Wös Hofzahlamtsbücher 121 (1677), fol. 161r: “Francisca Rossin gewesten Kay. Cammermusikantin.”

[41] A Margaretha Catonia is named in the Hofzahlamtsbücher 78 (1631), fol. 288r, where she was paid a small sum, 22 fl. On Cattaneo’s career, see Herbert Seifert, “Rapporti musicali tra i Gonzaga e le corti asburgiche austriache,” in I Gonzaga e l’Impero, 219–29, esp. 225–26.

[42] Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes 1:41; Seifert, “1619–1705: ‘Die kaiserlichen Hofkapellen,'” 50–1; Seifert, “Rapporti musicali,” 225–6; Cristina Grazioli, “L’edizione viennese de La Maddalena: Composizione rappresentativa (1629) di Giovan Battista Andreini (1576–1654),” in I Gonzaga e l’Impero, 493–507; Licia Mari, “Alcuni musicisti al servizio di Mantova e dell’Impero,” in I Gonzaga e l’Impero, 509–18, esp. 514–15; and Steven Saunders, Cross, Sword, and Lyre: Sacred Music at the Imperial Court of Ferdinand II of Habsburg (1619–1637) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), 180–82.

[43] Saunders, Cross, Sword, and Lyre, 181.

[44] Seifert, Die Oper am Wiener Kaiserhof, 28–30, 608–9.

[45] Andrea Sommer-Mathis, “‘La gara musicale’: Ein musikalischer Wettstreit am Hofe Kaiser Ferdinands II., ” in “Feste: Theophil Antonicek zum 70. Geburtstag,” ed. Martin Eybl, Stefan Jena, and Andreas Vejvar, special issue, Studien zur Musikwissenschaft 56 (2010): 65–89, esp. 82–84.

[46] Sommer-Mathis, “‘La gara musicale,'” 83.

[47] Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 1:90.

[48] Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 1:41. She was awarded 400 fl.

[49] A-Wös Finanz- und Hofkammerarchiv – Alte Hofkammer, Hoffinanz – Niederösterreichische Herrschaftsakten, W 61/A/32/B: Kapelle, Kammermusik, Hof-Oper Musikverzeichnis (1635–1749), fol. 511r: “Serenissima Alteza. Gia sono trascorse otto setimane, che Leonora, e Leonardo, e Francesco frateli rubini suplicorono S.M.C. per otenere da quella la gratia (per opera di misericordia) di farli pagare in contati li mille taleri della gratia fatta alla sua povera defonta madre in riconpensa della sua fedelissima servitu fata con ogni humilta, et ubedienza al’Augustissima Casa d’Austria per il spacio de dieci anni.” The request was granted by June 28, 1638 (fols. 518r, 531r). Giovanni Battista Rubini also petitioned for an increase in salary to finance the education of one of the couple’s sons (Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 1:38).

[50] See Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes 1:43, and Seifert, “1619–1705: ‘Die kaiserlichen Hofkapellen,'” 50.

[51] Herbert Seifert, “Die Musiker der beiden Kaiserinnen Eleonora Gonzaga,” in Festschrift Othmar Wessely zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. Manfred Angerer et al., 527–54 (Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1982), esp. 531, 548, 554. Signora Poncelli was the wife of the tenor Augustino Poncelli. The couple served Dowager Empress Eleonora in 1670, departing for Italy toward the end of the year.

[53] Vincenzino (Vincenzo di Pietro Olivicciani or Ulivicciani) was not a regular member of the Imperial Hofkapelle at this time, but had sung the role of Venus in Il pomo d’oro in 1668; see Carl B. Schmidt, Grove Music Online, s.v. “Pomo d’oro, Il” (accessed August 30, 2011). He divided his career between Florence and Vienna, with guest appearances elsewhere. Vincenzino was granted leave from the Viennese court in 1676 to seek medical treatment. He was again recorded as singing in Vienna in 1699, and he was in imperial court service 1700–11, being pensioned in the latter year. He died in 1726. See Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 3:14, and Warren Kirkendale, The Court Musicians in Florence during the Principate of the Medici (Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 1993), 409–11. On his Italian career, See Kirkendale, and Glixon and Glixon, Inventing the Business of Opera, 102, 177, 182–84.

[54] A-Wös Familienarchiv Harrach, Karton 207, Ferdinand Bonaventura I. Korrespondenz, Kaiserlicher Hof, Leopold I. (1674–1675 Juni), Letter from Leopold to Count Ferdinand Bonaventura Harrach, May 17, 1674: “die kayserin hat Erstlich Ein duetto mitt Giulia gesungen.…Und die basse habe die Kayserin mitt dem Vicenzo gesungen deßmitt der Giulia….die kayserin hatt auch allda gesungen wie auch un terzetto con Il pancothe don[na] Giulia.”

[55] I-Vmc PDC 1060, fol. 231: “Mi vien detto che la Pandolfina habbi cantato avanti l’Imperatrice, e che doveva seguire anco asieme con Giulia a che fine lo facino lo sapro ben tosto, e []?? sarà partecipato con che rassegnandoli.” With thanks to Beth Glixon for the reference and to Jonathan and Beth Glixon for the translation.

[56] Seifert, Die Oper am Wiener Kaiserhof, 756. In a letter to Prince-Bishop Karl von Liechtenstein-Kastelkorn in Kremsier (Kroměříž), Johann Heinrich Schmelzer alludes to Giulia’s participation in a chamber music performance of a work of his during carnival in 1676 (letter of February 20, 1676). The text is said to have played on her two names, likely Masotti and her future married name, Kugler. She had apparently at that time just become engaged to the young Ignaz Leopold Kugler.

[57] Seifert, Die Oper am Wiener Kaiserhof, 364, 480. The singers are named in a manuscript collection of arias. See Guido Adler, ed., Musikalische Werke der Kaiser Ferdinand III. Leopold I. und Joseph I., vol. 2, Gesänge aus Oratorien und Opern: Instrumentalkompositionen (Vienna: Artaria, 1893), 313. The complete score of Il ratto delle Sabine comes from the former imperial collection (A-Wn Mus. Hs. 16291).

[58] According to the list of characters in the libretto: Nicolò Minato, Il ratto delle Sabine, drama per musica, nel giorno natalizio della S.C.R.M. dell’Imperatore Leopoldo. Per commando della S.C.R.M. dell’Imperatrice Claudia, L’anno M. DC. LXXIV. Et alla medesima consacrato (Vienna: Gio. Christoforo Cosmerovio, 1674) (A-Wtm 407393-A).

[59] Seifert, Die Oper am Wiener Kaiserhof, 364, 749. Chiaromanni anticipates the excellence of the actors, “frà quali vedrannos’ in Teatro contro l’antico uso di questa Corte, due Femine, cioè la famosa Giulia Masotti, et una figlia di Cam.ra dell’Imperatrice” (among which will be seen on the stage, contrary to the old custom of this court, two women, namely the famous Giulia Masotti and a lady-in-waiting of the empress).

[60] A-Wös Familienarchiv Harrach, Karton 207, Ferdinand Bonaventura I. Korrespondenz, Kaiserlicher Hof, Leopold I. (1674–1675 Juni), letter from Leopold to Count Ferdinand Bonaventura Harrach, June 14, 1674: “Die Giulia hat sich in tutta perfettione gehalten.”

[61] Adler, Musikalische Werke der Kaiser Ferdinand III. Leopold I. und Joseph I., 2:313.

[62] A detailed treatment of this theme is Maria Goloubeva, The Glorification of Emperor Leopold I in Image, Spectacle and Text (Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 2000).

[63] On the strenuous efforts made to get Vincenzino to Venice, equal to those expended on Giulia, see Glixon and Glixon, Inventing the Business of Opera, xiv.

[64] Seifert, Die Oper am Wiener Kaiserhof, 77–78, 481.

[65] Giovanni Paolo Bonelli, a Roman-born tenor, served at the imperial court from ca.1666 to 1687. In 1679 he requested permission to go to Rome, his home, to spend his last days, but he was still apparently being paid a court pension in 1687. Bonelli sang with Giulia in Il ratto delle Sabine, taking the role of Romolo (Adler, Musikalische Werke der Kaiser Ferdinand III. Leopold I. und Joseph I., 2:313, and Seifert, Die Oper am Wiener Kaiserhof, 364).

[66] Possibly the sopranist Balthasar Ferri, who served at the imperial court 1653–80 (see Köchel, Die Kaiserliche Hof-Musikkapelle in Wien, 60, 63). In 1675 Ferri requested to be allowed to return to his home, as he had been in court service for twenty-two years and was now sixty-five years old and no longer able to serve. According to the Kapellmeister‘s testimonial, Ferri was “zu seiner zeit ainer aus denen bösten Virtuosen, auch allezeit vleissig in dienst gewesen” (in his time one of the best virtuosi and always carried out his duties assiduously). Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 2:33.

[67] Probably Vincenzino. The illness of “Vincenzo” was the cause of part of the delay: A-Wös Familienarchiv Harrach, Karton 207, Ferdinand Bonaventura I. Korrespondenz, Kaiserlicher Hof, Leopold I. (1674–1675 Juni), letter from Leopold to Count Ferdinand Bonaventura Harrach, November 1, 1674, fol. 3v: “d Vincenzo bleibet vor diß mall wider alhier, hat wegen eines Cathar die opera Umb 8 Tag verscheiben machen”(Vincenzino is here again, [but] because he is suffering from catarrh he has caused the opera to be delayed for eight days).

[68] Probably the soprano castrato Clemente Hader. In a payment list of ca. 1687, Clemente was the third highest paid performer, at 1,770 fl., after “Gio. Paolo” (1,880 fl.) and “Vincenzo” (3,320 fl.: the large sum paid to the latter suggests that this was Vincenzino). See Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 2:133. According to Köchel, Clemente served at court 1672–87 (Die Kaiserliche Hof-Musikkapelle in Wien, 63).

[69] Adam Franz Günther, son of Karl Günther, organist at St. Michael’s in Vienna. Franzl, as he was called, was just beginning his career at this time. According to Leopold, Franzl was trained by Viviani (see ref. 71); he had a powerful voice capable of filling a large theater and sang Italian like a native. A testimonial of 1682 from the Kapellmeister, Antonio Draghi, praised Franzl as “uno vertuosissimo nella sua professione” (one of the most virtuosic in his profession). See Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 2:98. He was on the court payroll from 1676 until his death in 1706 (Köchel, Die Kaiserliche Hof-Musikkapelle in Wien, 64).

[70] The source of the description is the libretto: Nicolò Minato, Il fuoco eterno custodito dalle vestali (Vienna: Gio Christoforo Cosmerovio, 1674), A-Wtm 211.290 B Th.

[71] A-Wös Familienarchiv Harrach, Karton 207, Ferdinand Bonaventura I. Korrespondenz, Kaiserlicher Hof, Leopold I. (1674–1675 Juni), letter from Leopold to Count Ferdinand Bonaventura Harrach, November 1, 1674, fol. 4v: “Vorgestert Ist Endlich die grosse Comedi gehalten worden, hat schier 6 Stundt gewerth, Undt Ist gar woll abgangen, hat auch grosse aplauso gehabt … die Giulia das madl, Gio. Paolo Forni Vincenzo Clemente haben sich al solito woll gehalten, das neye Teütsche castratl d Franzl hat wunder gethan, Undt hat ein Stark stim, so in d grossen teatro woll spiquirt hat, d bibiani hat Ihme also woll gelehrnet, das er so woll pronuncirt hat, als wann er sein lebtag wellisch kunte in suma fu una gran bella cosa.”

[72] A-Wös Familienarchiv Harrach, Karton 207, Ferdinand Bonaventura I. Korrespondenz, Kaiserlicher Hof, Leopold I. (1674–1675 Juni), letter from Leopold to Count Ferdinand Bonaventura Harrach, November 1, 1674, fols. 3v–4r: “Giulia ist noch ganz Verliebt, will Ihme 20 scudi Zubring, ich meine es werde noch angehen, ich glaube woll dein schmelzer taugte besser zum handl, als sein brüder” (Giulia is head over heels in love [and] wants to give him [Andreas Anton Schmelzer] 20 scudi. I think this might well happen, [as] I really believe that your Schmelzer [Andreas Anton] will be better able to deal with this than his brother [Georg Joseph, also a musician].).

[74] A-Wös Familienarchiv Harrach, Karton 299: Ferdinand Bonaventura I., Korrespondenz, Scheurer Abt Ferdinand bis Seilern, Freih. Friedrich, folder Schmelzer Johann Heinrich Kapellmeister, undated note: “Die Ursach aber besteht in disen Sie hat ihme versprochen 20 000 fl hieher zu machen, d erste Termin war bis auf deß Monats Augusti, ist aber nie nichts kommen, als etliche Spiegel galantaria Sachen von schlechten wert dahero mein Sohn ohne scheus gereden, Dan sie ihr wort mit halt so werde auß d heyrath nichts, Und weillen man dan argwonet sie hab das quantum nit, als hat sie selbst gesagt, sie Verlang kein d sie nur wegen des Interesse nomb welches mein Sohn vor bekant angenomben, ist Von herzen fro des gleichen ich selbst, Und Pflegieren ihme fast die ganze hoff statt.”

[75] “Der Verstand aber war auch die Julia Cantatrice welche die herrschaften selbst überredt, sie habe zu Rom anligent 2000 Cronen, die mein Sohn hat heurathen sollen; nachdeme aber die furberia an dag kommen, hat er sich mit gueter manier widerumb herausgeschrauft. Nun hat sie ein anderen namens Kugler, mit welchem es auch nit recht fortgehen will”; cited in Nettl, “Die Wiener Tanzkomposition,” 172.

[76] Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 2:42–44, 46.

[77] Vienna, Pfarre St. Augustin, Hofburgkapelle (A-Whk Tauf-, Trauungsbuch 01, 2-02 (1673–1712), 05-Trauung_0021 (p. 98): “29 Augusti 1676[:] Copulatus e[st] à me infra scripto Dnus Leopoldus Ignaty Cum Dna Vincenza Giulia Cantatrice a Cubiculis Augustissimae Imperatriis Claudia In Aulae in ipsius habitatione seu Cubiculo praesentibus multis Aulicis.” International Center for Archival Research (ICARUS), Matricula (Online Portal für Kirchenbücher), http://icar-us.eu/cooperation/online-portals/matricula (accessed November 15, 2014).

[78] A-Wös Hofzahlamtsbücher 121 (1677), fol. 289r: “Hr Geörgen Fleischhacker, Silberhandtlern, umb nacher hoff gegebenen Silber verguld becher, zum hochzeit Praesent des aungen Kuglers, Kay. Cammer Musici, gegen Geschäfft und qtung Ain hundert Siben und dreyßig guld[en] Idest. 137 — —” ([to] Herr Georg Fleischhacker, silver dealer, for the transaction concerning the gilded silver cup given by the court as a wedding present to the young Kugler, imperial chamber musician, one hundred and thirty-seven gulden).

[79] A-Wös Hofzahlamtsbücher 119 (1675), fol. 192r: [Außgaben auf Ihro May. Der regierenden Röm. Kayserin Claudia Felicitas…] “Musicantin Vincenza Giulia Massotin, die hinfüro von ersten Januar diß 675.isten Jahrs, anzurechnen, Jährl. 1860 fl. laut ordinanz und qtung mit den Passtiden mo. 7ber 673: Ain tausent acht hundert fünff und Neunzig guld[en]” (Expenses of her majesty the reigning empress Claudia Felicitas … [to] the musician Vincenza Giulia Masotti, reckoned from January 1 of the year 1675, her annual 1,860 florins, as agreed in September 1673: one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five Gulden); see also Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 2:42–43. She also requested the continuation of her allowance of firewood and access to the court apothecary, but these were denied.

[80] Karl Friedrich von Frank, Standeserhebungen und Gnadenakte für das Deutsche Reich und die Österreichischen Erblande bis 1806, 5 vols. (Schloss Senftenegg: the author, 1967–74): 3:90–91. The ennoblement of musicians in court service was common. On Schmelzer, see Rudolph Schnitzler,  Grove Music Online, s.v. “Schmelzer, Johann Heinrich” (accessed October 23, 2009).

[81] A-Wsa Grundbuch Schotten 29/31, fol. 125v: “aines haußes mit seiner zuegehörigung gelegen alhir zu Wienn am graben am Egkh den gasßen als mann in die Preinner Straß gehet, genant das alte brodthauß … Darumben vormahlen Herr Burckhart Kugler von Edlfeldt den Concertmaister und Frau Eva Elisabeth gebohren von Garnich seine Ehefrau, beede nunmehro sel[ig]…. Nach den beeden zeitlichen hinsterben ist gemeltes haus an Ihre nachgelasßene zwey Eheleibliche Kinder und Erben, als Herrn Ignatium Kugler, und frau Annam Mariam Guadagnin … erbliche Kommen” (a house with its contents located here in Vienna on the Graben at the corner of the streets where one goes into the Bräunerstrasse, called the Altes Brodhaus … formerly belonging to Herr Burckhardt Kugler von Edlfeldt, the Konzertmeister, and his wife Eva Elisabeth, born von Garnich, both now deceased. …After the deaths of both, the above-mentioned house was inherited by the two surviving children of the marriage, namely Herr Ignaz Kugler and Frau Anna Maria Guadagni).

[82] A-Wstm “Liber Baptismalis a mense Augusto DC.LXXIII usque ad annum M.DC.LXXXVI (1673–1686)”: Ferdinand was baptized on November 29, 1678 (p. 264); Maria Teresia Catharina on December 31, 1682 (p. 430); and Eleonora on November 19, 1684 (p. 477). Leopold Joseph’s date of birth is unknown, but he survived his mother. Both Ferdinand and Eleonora died in infancy, Ferdinand on February 14, 1679, and Eleonora on December 3, 1684 (A-Wsa Totenbeschauprotokoll).

[83] A-Wsa Totenbeschauprotokoll 1686, “Den 10 Jäner… Der H[err] Ignatius Kugler v Edlfeldt Kay[serlichen] Camer Music[us], in s[einem] H[aus] am graben, ist an brustcathär, und gosßner gaal b[e]sch[au]t. alt. 32 Jah[ren]” (Herr Ignaz Kugler von Edlfeldt, imperial chamber musician, died in his house on the Graben, of chest inflammation and bile. Aged thirty-two years.). See also Wien, Pfarre St. Michael (A-Wstm), Sterbebuch 03-01 (1631–1699), 02-Tod_1214 (p. 215). International Center for Archival Research (ICARUS), Matricula (Online Portal für Kirchenbücher), http://icar-us.eu/cooperation/online-portals/matricula (accessed November 15, 2014).

[84] Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 2:43: “benebens auch nit wisßent, ob Euer Kayl. May. Sich dießer Supplicantin mit den Singen Verrers gebrauch[en] werden, undt Sye mit der Stim continuiren khönne.”

[85] Diarium Europaeum 44 (1683): 122, cited in Seifert, Die Oper am Wiener Kaiserhof, 782.

[86] See ref. 82. On Eleonora: (A-Wstm Liber baptismalis 1673–1686, 477: November 19, 1684: “Eleonora Elisabetha, ex Patre D. Ignatio Leopoldo Khugler, et D. Vincentia Julia euis uxore. Matrina Augustissima Imperatrix Eleonora vidua, cuius loco verit D. Theresia Paxin” (Eleonora Elisabetha, [child] of father Ignaz Leopold Kugler and his wife Vincentia Julia. Godmother, Empress Widow Eleonora, represented by Theresia Pax).

[87] Knaus, Die Musiker im Archivbestand des kaiserlichen Obersthofmeisteramtes, 3:43. See also Reardon, “Letters from the Road,” par. 4.3.

[88] A-Wsa Grundbuch Schotten 29/31, fols. 125v, 126v, 127v, 160v, 161r: “Die Edl und Tugentreiche Frau Joanna Vicenza Giulia Masotta Kuglerin, Wittib” (the noble and virtuous Frau Joanna Vincenza Giulia Masotti Kugler, widow) (fol. 125v).

[89] A-Wös Hofzahlamtsbücher (144) 1702, fol. 208v: the sum of 930 fl., half her yearly salary, was paid out for the period January 1 to the end of June 1701. Her death is recorded in A-Wsa Totenbeschauprotokoll, 1701, “Den 26 Juny … Die WohlEdlgest[o]rb[ene] Fr[au] Julia Kuglerin, ein Gebohrne Masßottin, Witt[we] in ihren Hauß am graben, ist an Inerl[ichem] Brend und folgender fres b[e]sch[au]t. Alt 50 Jahr.” (Frau Julia Kugler, born Masotti, widow, died in a noble state in her house on the Graben, of internal infection and the resulting spasms. Aged fifty years).

[90] Dagmar Glüxam, “Verzeichnis der Sänger in den Wiener Opern- und Oratoriumspartituren 1705–1711,” Studien zur Musikwissenschaft 48 (2002): 298–99.

[91] Robert Lamar Weaver and Norma Wright Weaver, A Chronology of Music in the Florentine Theater, 1590–1750 (Detroit: Information Coordinators, 1978), 68. She was among the virtuosi of Cosimo III de’ Medici in 1690 and of Principessa Violante Beatrice in 1697 and 1698 (Kirkendale, Court Musicians in Florence, 651, 653). Lisi appeared in Perugia in 1690 in Il falso nel vero (see Claudio Sartori, I libretti italiani a stampa dalle origini al 1800 [Cuneo: Bertola and Locatelli, 1900–94]); in Genoa in the same year, in Antioco principe della Siria (Sartori) and Giacomo Antonio Perti’s Massimo Puppieno (Sartori; Weaver and Weaver, p. 169); in Siena in 1691 in L’Aldimiro o vero Favor per favore (Sartori); in Reggio in 1697 in Carlo Francesco Pollarolo’s L’Oreste in Sparta (Sartori) and possibly also in a commedia (Weaver and Weaver, pp. 179–80); in Milan in 1698 in L’Amfione; and in Mantua in 1698, in Il trionfo di Camilla, regina de’Volsci, possibly with music by Bononcini—Maria Landini also appeared in the latter (Sartori). Lisi made a return visit to Italy in 1705–6, singing in C. F. Pollarolo’s Filippo rè della Grecia and Flavio Bertarido rè de Longobardi at the Teatro Grimani di S. Giovanni Grisostomo, Venice (Sartori).

[92] Carlo Agostino Badia, Le gare dei beni, applauso poetico per musica, al gloriosissimo nome della S. C. R. M. dell’Imperatrice Eleonora, Maddalena Teresa, l’anno MDCC (A-Wn Mus. Hs. 18930). Lisi later appeared in Marc’Antonio Ziani, Caio Popillo, trattenimento musicale, nel felicissimo di natalizio, della Sac. Ces. Real Maestà, di Leopoldo I, Imperatore de’Romani, sempre Augusto, l’anno 1704 (libretto by Donato Cupeda) (A-Wn Mus. Hs. 18850).

[93] Badia, Diana rappacificata con Venere, e con Amore, trattenimento per musica nel gloriosissimo di natalizio della S.R.M. della Regina de’Romani Amalia Wilelmina, l’anno MDCC (A-Wn Mus. Hs. 17722).

[94] Köchel, Die Kaiserliche Hof-Musikkapelle in Wien, 72–81.

[95] A-Whh OMaA 658, Abhandlungen, Nr. 1260–1339, 1710–1711: [year] 1711/ [nr.] 1297, Contin Theresia, 18 Marz 1711, fol. 1r: “die Frau Theresia Continin Kayl Hoff Musicantin.”

[96] Badia, La concordia della virtù, e della fortuna, poemetto dramatico nel felicissimo giorno natalizio della Sac. Real M. di Amalia Wilhelmina, Regina de’Romani (A-Wn Mus. Hs. 16009).

[97] Glüxam, “Verzeichnis,” 303, 308, 313, 315: Marie Elisabeth Frühwirth, a member of a musical family in court service, appeared in several productions in 1708–10; a daughter of Antonio Borosini appeared in 1710; a La Nanini and a La Pallarati appeared in 1709.

[98] Köchel, Die Kaiserliche Hof-Musikkapelle in Wien, 68, and Glüxam, “Verzeichnis,” 277, 278, 311. Her name appears in the cast lists of two productions in 1707.

[99] Glüxam, “Verzeichnis,” 311. Hermine Weigel Williams, Francesco Bartolomeo Conti: His Life and Music (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999), 42–43.

[100] Glüxam, “Verzeichnis,” 311.

[101] At the time of her marriage, a legacy of 12,000 fl. from her father (perhaps money that had come to him from Giulia through his own marriage contract) passed into her own control: A-Wsa Grundbuch Schotten 29/31, fol. 246v (marginal note): “Nachdem die Jungfrau Kuglerin sich mit Hr. Frantz Conti verehelich ist, und Ihr die verlassenschaft von H[e]r[ren] Oberst Hoffmarschall eingehändiget worden, solcher auf lauth hineingegebener vidimisten verzichtes quittung obiges capital pr. 12000 fl. abgeführt worden, alß wirdt solches notl hiemit abgethan and casiret. Dem 26. Januar Ao. 1706″ (Since Jungfrau Kugler is now married to Herr Franz Conti and her inheritance is to be turned over to her by the Obersthofmarschall, thus according to the settlement receipt the above-mentioned 12,000 fl. is to be paid, thus this will necessarily be done and the money paid out. January 26, 1706). The estate was extremely involved, with difficulties extending back to the death of Burckhardt Kugler.